Protein arrays are miniaturised, solid-phase biochemical assays for detection of binding and function of many proteins in parallel. They use proteins immobilised on surfaces such as glass slides or beads and extend classical ELISA methods with greater speed, miniaturisation, multiplexing, automation, sensitivity and economical use of samples. It is possible to screen thousands of interactions in parallel - protein-antibody, protein-protein, protein-drug, enzyme-substrate - as well as providing potential assays for biomarkers. For these reasons, protein arrays are rapidly becoming established as powerful tools in functional proteomics and personalised medicine.
Two main types of protein arrays are:
(1) large-scale arrays of purified proteins used to screen interactions with antibodies, enzymes, other cellular or plasma proteins, DNA, or small molecules (drug screens). Our HuProt™ Human Proteome Microarrays are the most extensive human protein arrays on the market to date.
(2) antibody or capture arrays, using immobilised panels of antibodies or other binders to quantitate protein expression and biomarkers in complex fluids such as plasma, urine or tissue extracts.
Both types of arrays have applications in clinical diagnostics, e.g. detection of antibodies in autoimmune diseases or biomarkers in sera of cancer patients, as well as in target and drug discovery. Moreover, since most proteins are made by recombinant methods, there is direct connection between results on protein arrays and DNA sequence information.
Stoevesandt O, Taussig MJ, He M. (2009) Protein microarrays: high-throughput tools for proteomics (Review). Expert Rev. Proteomics. 6:145-57